Wounded Knee Massacre
American History, December 2005, v40, #5, p16-, 4p
"The intermittent war between the United States and the Plains
Indians that stretched across some three decades after the Civil
War came to an end on December 29, 1890, at the Pine Ridge Reservation
in South Dakota. The events leading up to its final act--the Wounded
Knee Massacre -- had been building since the late 1880s, when the
son of a Paiute shaman named Wovoka had first introduced a series
of new beliefs and practices to the Indian reservations of the West…
U.S. Indian authorities claimed that in the hands of the defeated
and embittered leaders of the Teton Sioux -- men like Short Bull,
Kicking Bear and eventually Sitting Bull himself -- Wovoka's peaceful
religion had taken on the militant overtones of a millennial uprising.
Wovoka had created a ceremony called the Ghost Dance to invoke the
spirits of the dead and facilitate their resurrection." It
became clear that what the Ghost Dance foretold was a hope forlorn.
Charles Phillips is the author and co-author of numerous works
of history and biography.
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